Customising storage supplies according to consumer demands has become popular in recent years. Accommodating a diverse range of products is essential for supply chains worldwide.
Countless options are available for personalised storage, but the most common one includes cold storage.
So, today’s blog will explore the workings of cold storage in warehouses and cover everything associated with it.
So, read this blog until the end to get the complete picture and understand all the crucial factors we’re about to discuss.
What Is A Cold Storage?
Food and medications are two examples of edible, temperature-sensitive goods best kept in a cold storage facility.
These things need storage at a specific temperature since they will likely spoil regularly.
It is typically challenging to retain fresh goods, such as fruit and vegetables or fish and meat, for extended periods, such as during transit or while waiting for sale, because they typically require the ideal temperature and a fresh atmosphere.
Because of this, practically all cold storage facilities feature, enabling you to set up the system exactly how you need it.
Who Needs Cold Storage Warehouse?
Cold storage is crucial for any good or object that quickly deteriorates or loses integrity when exposed to temperature changes.
You can keep these delicate products colder or frozen to assist in slowing down the physical and chemical changes that would otherwise destroy their purity and speed up biological deterioration.
Transporting these products to end users with top-notch quality is the main job of cold storage warehousing.
Products That Need Cold Storage
- Items such as dairy products, frozen foods, meat and seafood, and fresh produce
- Nutritional supplements, such as goods with perishable nutrients
- Botanicals, including plants and flowers
- Biopharmaceuticals include medications, immunisations, blood products, IVs, and specific dentistry supplies.
- Books and artwork, such as paintings, film canisters, and historical papers
- Handcrafted items such as candles (which may melt or lose their colour if stored at a high temperature)
- Cosmetics like cologne and lipstick
- Substances such as disinfectants and reagents (which need cold to slow down their chemical reactions)
- Organic fabrics made of skin, wool, and fur
- Special Aircraft Parts
How Cold Storage Works?
Cold storage facilities employ HVAC cooling systems and insulation to keep temperatures lower.
Unlike homes, cold storage warehouses benefit from insulation since it reduces heat transfer from the interior to the exterior.
However, cold storage warehouse cooling systems are a little more intricate.
However, the general principle is to absorb and remove the heat and substitute cooler air using a combination of coolant, pipes, radiators, and fans.
The Main Cold Storage Cooling Components Include:
i- The Coolant:
The coolant, also known as “refrigerant,” is comparable to the blood in a mechanical, human body as compared to a cold storage warehouse system for cooling.
This is because it is a liquid, usually anhydrous ammonia, and it similarly travels through the system as blood through veins, arteries, and organs via a network of tubes, pipes, and other parts.
ii- The Compressor:
The primary part of a cold room cooling system is the compressor.
The compressor is like the “heart” in that it aids in the movement of the coolant if the coolant is the “blood.”
You can accomplish this by compressing the coolant to increase its pressure and temperature, after which the compressor pumps the heat of the refrigerant into the condenser.
The condenser picks up the heat from the refrigerant and releases it outside using tubes, fans, or water spray.
After switching its phase from a gas to a liquid during the operation, the refrigerant passes into the receiver
The condensate of high-pressure liquid coolant that the receiver receives from the condenser is stored there.
By doing this, the receiver keeps the pressure in the system constant and acts as a buffer to handle higher loads, such as the requirement for more chilly air.
The receiver opens an expansion valve to release refrigerant when needed.
The expansion valve aids in controlling the temperature, pressure, and quantity of refrigerant it discharges into the separator, which is the following component.
The refrigerant gets transferred from the receiver to the separator and accumulates there.
The refrigerant goes into a second valve expansion, where pumps control the flow rate outside for the separator for smooth evaporation.
The load on the evaporator, dictated by the warehouse’s cooling requirements, gets modified with the assistance of the pumps.
The evaporator is the device that lowers the temperature in the area and cools it by introducing cold air.
A fan blasts air from the surrounding space across a network of tubes while the cold refrigerant passes through them.
Because the air leaving the evaporator is cold and the cold refrigerant in the pipes absorbs heat, the room and its contents stay cool.
The cooling begins when the refrigerant returns to the compressor, the initial component after the coolant has completed its task in the evaporator.
6 Types Of Cold Storage
Different types of cold storage are available depending on the kind, quantity, and length of time the item needs to be stored.
The following categories showcase cold warehouses for modern purposes:
1- Multi-Purpose Cold Storage:
These hold different kinds of meat, such as lamb and chicken, and other goods you can utilize year-round.
Products, chilled storage, and freezing are all part of a cold store’s operational program, created with precise guidelines.
The majority of these units are close to the areas of consumption.
2- Frozen Food Storage:
For items including fish, meat, poultry, dairy products, processed foods, and vegetables, these food stores can include freezing and processing facilities in their architecture.
Frozen foods typically have very good safety records. The commercial norm for food preservation is roughly -18C; therefore, that’s where the management usually stores them.
Foods that are dried or frozen shouldn’t go through any structural or chemical alterations to prevent contamination during extended periods of storage.
Before being processed further, frozen goods are either thawed or tempered.
3- Bulk Cold Storage
Typically, businesses use these storages to hold a specific seasonal commodity, such as potatoes, apples, chillies, etc.
A highly effective and eco-friendly method is using seasonal cold storage. For free cooling in the summer, it stores natural cold energy during the winter.
The generated cold energy is kept in an insulated tank as ice. It is extracted and used as chilled water for summer cooling supplies, significantly reducing the time the chiller must run and the related electricity use and greenhouse gas emissions.
4- Private Cold Storage:
Owned by the same company that utilizes or produces the items in the facility distinguishes private cold storage warehouses from other facilities.
They get attached to the main production plant and receive the fresh goods by conveyor.
The products stay in the cold storage facility until they are complete for direct merchants and end user’s shipment.
It’s rare to find private cold storage facilities.
This is primarily because of the high cost of operating and constructing them, necessitating careful engineering, detailed design, and following numerous rules.
5- Small Cold Storage:
Pre-cooling facilities are inside these cold storage for export produce, such as fresh fruits like grapes.
Small-scale producers have various options for cooling systems, such as passive evaporative cooling, electric-based cooling, or mechanical refrigeration.
For the product to be cooled, the pre-cooling system’s cost, effectiveness, and safety should be considered together with the estimated financial gains.
6- Mini Walk-In Cold Storage:
You can find them in distribution centres. To store a wide range of products for low-temperature storage, walk-in cold stores are ideal in dairy, food and beverage, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and other industries.
Comparable in appearance to walk-in cool rooms, walk-in freezers are intended to keep commodities for months at much lower temperatures.
Their temperature ranges from -18 to -22 degrees Celsius.
Wrapping It Up!
That’s a complete guide on how cold storage works in warehouses. This blog includes all the products, working, types, and components you need to know.
So, review it thoroughly and let us know what you think about them in the comments below.
Moreover, if you’re a businessman looking to customise cold storage, check out Aust Epic Group for warehouse facilities and pioneering cold storage.
Is It Hard To Work In Cold Storage?
Working in a cold store requires vital physical and mental requirements and exposes one to intense cold. Wearing appropriate clothing is essential to minimising body heat loss.
What are the conditions for cold storage?
The product needs to be kept in cold storage at a temperature that is 1-2 °C above freezing.
Multiple products can be stored in the same warehouse because each has a unique humidity and temperature value.
Water condensation and product deterioration could result from excessive moisture in the tank.
What is the minimum size of cold storage?
One can start a cold storage business on 1800–2000 square meters of land.
You can construct all the necessary space for a house, office, and cold storage for staff members in 1800–2000 square meters.
Thus, we can determine the necessary amount to open a 500-ton cold storage facility.